Around 70% of civil servants have public-facing jobs, including paying pensions and other benefits, processing visa and driving licence applications, checking passports, working in courts, managing prisoners, collecting taxes, and helping people find jobs.
Other civil servants work in the security services, in the Ministry of Defence, improving the transport infrastructure etc.
It is unlikely that there are more than a couple of thousand officials who have regular and frequent contact with the c.100 Government Ministers.
Numbers by Grade
According to the Office for National Statistics, the headcount numbers in each broad grade of the civil service in 2016 were as set out below. (Click here for descriptions of each grade.)
4,948 in the Senior Civil Service (SCS)*
39,500 in Grades 6/7
207,252 in the executive grades,
153,834 in the administrative grades,
12,809 not reported, and so
418,343 in total.
*This figure is somewhat higher than the 4,000 SCS staff-in-post reported by the Senior Salaries Review Body (SSRB) - see following section. This is probably because the ONS include some NHS staff as well as staff in some smaller organisations whose pay and staffing is not directly controlled by the Treasury and Cabinet Office.
Numbers by Salary
This chart summarises the salary distribution of civil servants.
The Senior Civil Service (SCS)
The above chart is taken from the 2016 report of the Senior Salaries Review Body. The upward sloping red line and the downward sloping green line reflects the increasing proportion of senior managers within the civil service.
In 2015 there were around 3,000 in SCS Pay Bands 1 and 1A, 740 in Pay Band 2, 150 in Pay Band 3, and 40 Permanent Secretaries. Only 4.1% were black and minority ethnic, compared with 1.8% in 1996 and a peak of 4.3% in 2011. 3.2% of the SCS were disabled (1996 1.7%, 3.6% 2011).
Information about SCS pay may be found here.
A high proportion of appointments to the SCS are from the wider public sector or the private sector:
Contrary to its popular image, the Senior Civil Service (SCS) has become less dominated by ‘upper class’ backgrounds than is the case in many other professions. The proportion of ‘public school’ educated top civil servants has declined over the past century (see Figure 1), standing now at only 27% of the ‘Top 200’.
Women in the Civil Service
54% of civil servants in 2016 were women, compared with 41% in 1984. The proportion decreases steadily in the higher grades, but 40% of the SCS are now women.
In more detail, according to the IfG (2017 Whitehall Monitor)...
'Gender balance at the top of the civil service has improved – rising to a high of 40% in 2016, up from 34% in 2010. However, this is lower than the percentage of women across the civil service as a whole (54% in 2016). It is also lower than any Fast Stream intake since 1999 (49.6% of Fast Stream appointments in 2015 were women); the gender balance in Fast Stream appointments may feed into the pipeline for future senior civil servants.
Women outnumber men at more junior grades, and remain under-represented in senior roles. This is true not just of the senior civil service, but at grades 6 and 7 (45% female) and SEO/HEO grade (48%) too. Women outnumber men at the most junior AO/AA grade (59% female) and at EO level (57%). On the plus side, the percentage of women making up SEO/ HEO, grades 6 and 7 and the senior civil service has increased since 2010. '
The IfG reported as follows in their 2017 Whitehall Monitor - which contains much more detail including some interesting charts:
'In 2016, 11.2% of civil servants were from an ethnic minority (where ethnicity was known), up from 10.6% in 2015 but below the 14% of the UK population that were from an ethnic minority at the 2011 Census. However, only 7% of senior civil servants were from an ethnic minority in 2016, down slightly from 7.2% in 2015. After significant progress was made in promoting ethnic minorities in 2014, numbers have plateaued. But Fast Stream recruitment is ahead of the rest of the civil service – in 2015, more than 14% of appointments were from an ethnic minority.
Disability representation follows a similar pattern: the percentage of civil servants declaring a disability across the whole civil service has increased (to 9.2% in 2016), but figures are much lower in the senior civil service, and progress seems to have stalled over the past two to three years (only 4.7% had a disability in 2016, up slightly from 2015 but below the 2014 figure of 5%). Again, the Fast Stream performs better, with 13%-15% of appointments between 2008 and 2012 going to those declaring a disability, but this has since fallen to below 10%.
The civil service is putting a lot of effort into increasing diversity – including the Talent Action Plan and ‘champions’ at senior levels. Despite improvements, there is still a long way to go. The civil service also faces challenges in measuring its progress, given the large percentage of respondents not declaring their ethnicity (12.8%) or disability status (13.1%), to say nothing about the lack of responses on LGBT status and the difficulties of measuring socio-economic background.'
But we are still waiting for a female and/or ethnic minority Cabinet Secretary. Here are the five most recent ones as at 2017 - from the left: Robert Armstrong, Robin Butler, Richard Wilson, Andrew Turnbull, Gus O'Donnell and Jeremy Heywood.
Information about civil service pay may be found here.
The Cost of the Civil Service
The civil service pay bill was £16.0bn in 2011. The total public sector pay bill was £167.5bn, and total Managed Government Expenditure was £687.6bn.
Retirement and Dismissal
Only c.16% of civil servants retire at or above their normal retirement age. Over 60% resign to follow other careers etc. (See also Can Civil Servants be Dismissed?.)
Around 19% of civil servants work in London, with another 8% in the rest of the South East, 53% in the rest of England, 10% in Scotland, 7% in Wales and 3% in Northern Ireland, overseas and unreported (2014 figures). The equivalent figures in 1991 were around (L & SE) 37, 44, 10, 6 and 3%.
The IfG's 2017 Whitehall Monitor included the following comment:
'As of March 2016, 78,820 civil servants are based in London. That constitutes 19% of the home civil service, more concentrated than the 18% in 2015 and 16.5% in 2010. Civil servants based in Scotland and Wales account for a higher percentage of the workforce in 2016 compared to 2010, while in all English regions the percentage has fallen over this period.
Departmental groups (the department itself and the executive agencies and non- ministerial departments for which it is ultimately responsible) vary in where they employ their civil servants. DCMS (98%) and HMT (96%) are the only departmental groups to employ more than 90% of their staff in London (though the now-abolished DECC, 89%, came close). The four largest departmental groups – DWP, MoJ, HMRC and MoD – have large workforces across the country and (with Defra) employ fewer than one in five of their staff in London (fewer than one in ten at DWP and MoD).'
Here is chart showing the distribution in 2016.
The majority of civil servants work in only five very large departments. Three or four of the smallest departments have fewer than 50 staff. This IfG table neatly summarises the size of the major Ministerial departments at the end of 2015. The purple segments represent civil servants in the main department. The grey segments represent those employed in arms length bodies such as NDPBs/Quangos.
Fast Stream Recruitment
Most recruitment to the civil service is carried out by individual departments whose needs vary greatly from one to another, and from year to year. But around 1,000 particularly talented graduates - economists, engineers, lawyers, scientists, generalists and many others - are recruited each year via the Fast Stream Recruitment Scheme, chosen from around 20,000 applicants.
The Institute for Government regularly publishes detailed analyses of civil service employment data, as well as much other interesting data, in its Whitehall Monitor series, from which many of the above charts are taken.
Detailed Civil Service Statistics are published annually by the Office of National Statistics; and a sample of these, including the 2016 data, are in the statistics section of my online reference library.
Further detail is also available from the Cabinet Office and Treasury websites, and also in the annual reports of the Senior Salaries Review Body.
The Context for Civil Service Reform 2012 also contains some interesting data and charts.
And an annex to the Oughton Report reports some interesting statistics as they were in 1993.